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Contoh menulis kerangka pemikiran

Berikut contoh menulis kerangka pemikiran. smoga bermanfaat untuk mahasiswa yg skripsi atau tesis

Contohn menulis kerangka pemikiran

 

SERI MANAGEMEN KRISIS: CRISIS COMMUNICATION

Materi ini bicara ttg komunikasi saat krisis. untuk lebih mendapatkan pemahaman yg lebih mendalam, silahkan baca di buku saya: Public Relations & Crisis Management: pendekatan critical PR, etnografi kritis dan kualitatif, Prenada Jakarta, 2012.

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CRISIS COMMUNICATION

IKLAN, EFEK STEREOTYPE & PORNOGRAFI

Iklan, stereotype, & pornografi

Rachmat Kriyantono, Ph.D

Dosen Komunikasi UB Malang

Bahasan LEBIH DETAIL tentang seluk beluk periklanan silahkan baca di buku saya ini:

cover manajemen periklanan

Stereotipe

Masalah lainnya adalah penggambaran yang dilakukan iklan pada kelompok sosial tertentu. Perempuan banyak dijadikan korban sekaligus objek sasaran iklan. Perempuan sering diperlakukan untuk merepresentatifkan produk. Contoh: sebuah iklan mobil menjual kemulusan body mobil dengan disimbolkan melalui seorang perempuan yang berbaju minim duduk di kap mobil. Artinya, mulusnya body mobil sama dengan mulusnya tubuh perempuan. Banyak produk periklanan yang menempatkan perempuan sebagai “objek tontonan” dalam iklan dengan beragam konstruksi, seperti sebagai objek seksual para lelaki (misalnya, kalau tidak cantik akan ditinggalkan lelaki); perempuan harus menjaga kecantikannya, kemulusannya, keseksian dan kerampingan tubuh agar disayang lelaki dan diterima dalam pergaulan sosial; perempuan dikonstruksi sebagai pelaksana tugas-tugas domestik rumah tangga, seperti memasak dan merawat anak. Di sisi lain, para lelaki disimbolkan sebagai kaum perkasa, pekerja keras, dan penanggung jawab kehidupan keluarga. Selain contoh stereotipe gender di atas, periklanan juga berkontribusi mendiseminasi streotipe etnis-kultural maupun fisik.

Seksualitas dan Pornografi

Masalah yang juga sering muncul adalah terkait isu-isu seksualitas dan pornografi. Penggunaan model iklan seksi, berpakaian minim hingga suara mendesah  saat mengucapkan kalimat yang juga berbau membangkitkan birahi adalah jenis-jenis seksualitas dan pornografi dalam iklan. Situasi ini juga muncul secara tidak langsung dengan menggunakan kalimat-kalimat yang tidak secara eksplisit mengeksploitasi seksualitas. Tetapi, kalimat-kalimat tersebut dapat menggiring persepsi dan pola pikir terhadap hal-hal yang berbau sesualitas. Contoh: Tagline Kopi Susu Torabika “pas susunya”, ditujukan untuk menjelaskan keseimbangan antara kopi dan susu pada produknya. Tetapi, kreatif iklannya yang memunculkan adegan lelaki saat mencium aroma dan rasa Torabika di depan perempuan yang seksi, dapat memunculkan persepsi yang mengarah pada salah satu bagian tubuh perempuan model iklan tersebut.

Serial Crisis Management

Materi yang membahas crisis management. Lebih detailnya, silahkan baca di buku saya public relations & crisis management (2012).

Materi -Model CM

Critical Public Relations

Critical Public Relations

Rachmat Kriyantono, Ph.D

School of Communication UB Malang

Critical public relations can be defined as the use of critical perspective in public relations. Public relations research based on critical perspective has been emerged within the last decade (L’Etang, 2005; Mickey, 2003; Motion & Weaver, 2005; Pasadeos, Berger, & Renfro, 2010; Toth, 2002). Critical public relations “has challenged current assumptions, defined and critiqued a “dominant paradigm”…, applied critical theory… and critiqued policy and practice.” (L’Etang, 2005, p. 522). This challenges and critics lead to public debates which aim “to raise the social consciousness of forms of oppression.” (Mickey, 2003, p. 6).  Critical perspective criticizes the domination of Excellence theory because excellence theory does not contain power-control aspect when discussing public relations phenomenon (Wehmeier, 2009) and fails to reveal primacy of powers in the construction of relationship between organization and public (Gower, 2006; Curtin & Gaither, 2005). Some literatures (such as Botan & Hazleton, 2006; Gower, 2006; Greenwood, 2010; Holtzhausen & Voto, 2002; Pasadeos, et al, 2010; Trujilo & Toth, 1987) stated that there is a struggle of paradigm between the dominant paradigm that is represented by excellence theory versus critical paradigm, including postmodernism.

From Thomas (1993) and Littlejohn & Foss (2008), critical perspective assumed that realities contain dominations and repressions as a result of unbalance power in society. This domination, repression and unbalance power are constructed in social interactions. Therefore, this critical perspective aims to promote emancipatory, freedom and equality by revealing social situations that marginalize others and by synthesizing theoretical & practical aspects to support social changes.

In the organization and public relations contexts, based on Toth & Trujilo’s (1987) ideas, critical perspective views that organization as an arena of struggle of powers, influences, and controls. Public is perceive as coalitions and constituents who has different needs, values and perceptions. Communication is used to disseminate organization’s ideologies, to bargain and negotiate with those various coalitions and constituents. Critical scientists attempt to expose repressive aspects -as a result of powers and dominations in organization- in order to offer alternative views for radical changes in organization-public relationship.

From descriptions above it can be concluded that critical perspective is needed to develop public relations study. In general, critical public relations has a function to maintain balancing relationships between organization and its public to reach harmony. Harmony means that both parties agree to build mutual understanding and cooperation. This function can be reached by doing research:

(a)    To reveal hidden realities in public relations practices by asking what ideologies, powers, and interests represented in public relations programs.

(b)   To criticize and to challenge current assumptions in public relations arena. For instance, public relations is assumed as a gatekeeper that bridges organization’s and public’s interests. Is it factual? or is it a jargon of image projection as symbolic hegemony?

(c)    To criticize public relations policies or practices, including a reflection of the role and responsibility of public relations in democratic society. L’Etang & Pieczka (1996), cited in Mickey (2003), stated that public relations practices are often not followed by critical reflection from critical theories, Marxism or postmodernism. Public relations is perceived focus more on search ideas of problem solving, but not to be interested in self-reflection. Fourth, as mentioned by Grunig (Motion & Weaver, 2005, p. 49): “a need for critical researchers and theorists is to more clearly outline how their approaches contribute to advancing not only public relations theory, but also research and practice.”

(d)   Critical perspective is an intellectual responsibility for scientists to reveal truth by critically against public relations practices that humiliate human values.

(e)    To reach equality regardless race, gender and ethnic.

 

In practical aspects, critical perspective will influence how public relations activities should be done. Therefore, public relations activities can be conducted with the aims of:

·      Supporting public’s interest and increasing power and influences that public has in the market competition.

·      Stimulating public’s awareness to participate. Public relations also stimulates organization to pay attention ethical aspect and social responsibility, i.e. through corporate social responsibility programs.

Tulisan ini diadopsi dari thesis Ph.D saya. Untuk lebih detailnya, silahkan anda baca buku saya Public Relations & Crisis Management: Critical PR, Etnografi kritis dan kualitatif (2012), Prenada Jakarta

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